Category: Traditional Architecture

Can You Place Any Size Bar on a Stihl Chain Saw?

A chain saw’s manual bar determines the size of wood the saw can cut, and also the size of a saw engine determines, in large part, how long a bar the saw can handle. Guide bar length also results in the saw’s weight and ease of handling; a long manual bar is comparatively heavy, and it moves the saw’s centre of gravity away from the operator, making the saw trickier to control. All these factors lead Stihl to specify a recommended variety of guide bar lengths for each of its series saw models.

Homeowner Chain Saws

Saws designed to perform typical residential cutting and pruning tasks usually have smaller motors than heavy-duty saws, and they are able to handle only relatively short guide bars. Stihl recommends its MS 170, MS 171, MS 180, MS 181, MS 192 and MS 211 homeowner versions be outfitted with direct bars between 12 and 16 inches. The MS 250 and MS 251 versions are outfitted with larger 45 cc engines and are capable of forcing an 18-inch bar.

Heavy-Duty Chain Saws

A step up from homeowner saws are saws designed to handle bigger tasks in non-professional configurations; they are intended to be equally versatile and powerful. Stihl calls this kind of saws its own”Farm & Ranch” versions, and their engine sizes range from 50 cc to 64 cc. All these versions — which include the MS 271, MS 291, MS 311 and MS 391 — can take direct pubs between 16 and 20 inches.

Professional Chain Saws

The characteristics that differentiate Stihl’s professional-grade saws are intended to make the saws dependable, powerful, comfortable and equipped to stand up to the rigors of everyday use. The expert versions vary considerably in size, in the MS 150 arborist saw, which has a 12-inch bar, to the massive MS 880, whose 121.6 cc engine can deal with a 59-inch bar. At the middle of the range, versions include the MS 261, which can take a bar between 16 and 20 inches; the MS 362, which can accommodate a bar up to 25 inches; the MS 441 and MS 461, which can take a bar up to 32 inches; and also the MS 660, which carries a bar up to 36 inches.

In-Tree and Electric Saws

Saws designed to be used by professional arborists in trees, the MS 192 and MS 201 versions, can take direct bars between 12 and 16 inches. Stihl’s electrical saws come in 3 different sizes: the MSE 140 can take care of a bar between 12 and 16 inches, the MSE 180 can shoot a bigger 18-inch bar, and the MSE 220 carries a bar between 16 and 20 inches. The little battery-powered MSA 160 is equipped with a 12-inch bar.

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Should a Grow Light Be From Vegetable Plants?

Seedlings need extreme light to fuel their initial spurt of expansion and healthy leaf formation. They need 250 to 1,000 foot candles of light daily. A standard fluorescent bulb may provide enough light when it’s put close enough to the seedlings so they receive the optimum intensity. Multi-light fixtures supply more even lighting over a broader space, therefore all parts of the seedling can receive equal illumination.

Fluorescent Lights

Fluorescent bulbs don’t produce heat such as other lighting options, so it’s possible to place these considerably nearer to the seedlings. Putting the fixtures so that they are 2 to 6 inches above the surface of the foliage offers high-intensity light. The 2-inch height works well for smaller seedlings or if you’re using reflectors round the light tubes to better distribute the light. Placing the tubes at 6 inches provides light over a greater area, which can be favored for taller seedlings or if you don’t have reflectors installed. Use a combination warm-white or tubes and cool-white grow light.

Incandescent Lights

The heat from incandescent bulbs, such as a regular light bulb, can burn or dry out seedlings if it’s put too closel into the young plants. If you have to use incandescents, set them at least 12 inches above the tender seedlings. Incandescent lights don’t offer the suitable lighting spectrum for tender seedlings, so it’s best to blend these with natural sun or a fluorescent bulb when possible. Use a thermometer to manage the temperature with these bulbs. If the seedling area begins to warm above 75 degrees Fahrenheit, the bulbs are too close and may damage the crops.

Light Duration

Keeping the lights on long enough daily ensures that the seedlings get light. Even when set just above the seedlings, artificial lighting is poorer than sunlight. As the plants need sunlight generally, lights should be left on for the length of time. Most seedlings need eight hours of sun daily, therefore leave the lights on for 16 hours each day. Placing the lights closer won’t compensate for time that is insufficient . An automated timer works for handling them.

Lighting Stands

A lighting stand adjustment of light elevation. These flexible stands permit you to raise the lights as the seedlings grow, so you can quickly move the fixture into the correct height. As an alternative, you may hang a light fixture above the seedlings with hooks and a string, then correct the string length to raise and lower the lights. If you have to use a light that is fixed in place, set boxes or bricks beneath the seedling trays to lift them so they are the correct distance from the lights. Remove boxes from beneath the seedlings to reduce them further from the lights as they grow.

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Layout Icons: Evolving Architect-Artist, Rudolph M. Schindler

Rudolph M. Schindler (1887–1953) is generally associated with Los Angeles, making sense, considering that most of the Austrian-born architect’s output in the middle of the 20th century was in and around the metropolis. His influence on subsequent generations of California architects is normally ascribed to the plasticity of his forms (which he focused on over function and technical aspects) and the connection of the rooms in his houses to outside spaces. But he also contributed several ideas about collective dwelling, going past the single-family houses that dot the landscape.

R.M. Schindler, because he was known, was trained as an engineer and an architect in Vienna. He worked for only about a couple of years until he awakened the United States to work for a company in Chicago; he set sail the identical month as the outbreak of World War I.

Although he did not see the move as a permanent one at the moment, the war along with his employment by Frank Lloyd Wright a few years after the transfer colluded to maintain Schindler in the U.S. His transfer to Los Angeles and marriage to the sexually and socially involved Pauline Gibling at the end of the decade cemented his stay.

Over the course of his career by his training in Vienna to his apprenticeship in Chicago and years working in Los Angeles — Schindler moved from an architect-engineer to an architect-artist. Wright hired him due to his engineering knowledge, but lately after Schindler set out on his own, he had been charting a exceptional route with a distinctive style. Let us take a peek at a few of Schindler’s endeavors to see that the evolution of his formal and aesthetic sense and how he went beyond in his design.

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The job that Schindler is famous for is the eponymous dwelling he built for his family and for buddy and engineer Clyde Chace in 1922. The Schindler House now serves at the home of the Vienna-based MAK Center, holding exhibitions of art and architecture. We’ll go into more detail about the house in a bit, but first it’s worth looking at a job Schindler worked on during his tenure with Frank Lloyd Wright.

The Hollyhock House, East Hollywood. Wright began designing the Hollyhock House for Aline Barnsdall in 1918; it had been finished in 1921, the year Schindler set out on his own. During this three-year period, Wright had been spending most of his time in Japan, overseeing the big Imperial Hotel. Therefore Schindler and Wright’s son did the drawings and oversaw the structure, respectively. Eventually Schindler took over all aspects of the project, also Barnsdall became a regular customer of Schindler’s after her house was finished.

As with most of Wright’s projects, the cost ballooned as the job went on, and Schindler had to make changes on his own, instead of wait for Wright’s acceptance from Japan. Schindler did not like the heavy and sculptural nature of the design, and changed a few of those aspects. Wright wasn’t delighted with the house’s outcome, saying: “It was finally completed with great difficulty … partly because I had to abandon it in amateur hands.”

The Hollyhock House reopened in 2015 after a huge renovation project.

The Schindler House, West Hollywood. The house Schindler built for his family and also the Chace family is exceptional for being a double dwelling, but also for its structure, its floor plan along with also the connection of the rooms to outside spaces. This perspective of Schindler’s study (his wife had a study nearby( both overlooking the identical patio) reveals the technical innovation: Walls are made from tilt-up concrete panels instead of wood framing; the hybrid structure of concrete walls, concrete flooring and timber roof provides the spaces their solid atmosphere. Narrow differences between the panels function as windows which maintain solitude; those walls confront the neighbors and the outside spaces of the Chace family.

Here is yet another perspective of Schindler’s library, showing the big windows and whistles overlooking the patio.

The type of the building reacts to the dual-dwelling nature of the project and also the production of outdoor spaces through three L-shaped pieces. The one in the foreground served the Schindlers, the one going away from us was to the Chaces, and also the one on the left contained the communal areas (kitchen, garage, guest room).

The elevated parts visible in the previous drawing, occurring at the knuckles of the Schindler and Chace volumes, function as entrances, as halls linking the two portions of the Ls, while also home bathrooms and, above all those, sleeping porches. The character of the spaces suggests that Schindler was influenced by Wright’s time spent in Japan.

The plan is exceptional not only for the way it defines indoor zones and outside spaces (seven distinct living spaces outside!) , but also since it’s totally without bedrooms. Inspired by prospective client Phillip Lovell’s thoughts on health and outdoor living, the households slept in the open in “sleeping baskets” which were lofts above the entrances. Schindler wasn’t the sole architect to embrace this idea (that the Greenes incorporated sleeping porches within their Gamble House), but sleeping lofts in a communal dwelling were exceptional.

Pueblo Ribera Court job, La Jolla. Schindler’s thoughts on communal dwelling continued in the Pueblo Ribera Court job in La Jolla, near San Diego. Hired to design a dozen dwellings on some land near the Pacific Ocean, Schindler put the bungalows in L-shaped pairs, each taking up one leg and overlooking to its own patio.

The architect also continued his stubborn focus on concrete over wood construction, designing banded walls which recalled some of Wright’s houses in timber. Reportedly the concrete structure, among other things, did not work well in the polluted atmosphere (deteriorating concrete and flows were common), but the dwellings remain to this day.

An endearing element of the layout — something which enabled the consumer to put up with all the greater cost of concrete and expected technical problems — would be that the rooftop terraces, marked with the timber trellises. Due to Schindler’s preparation of the bungalows and the incline of the website, every unit has views of the Pacific.

J.E. Howe house, Los Angeles. The house for J.E. Howe in Los Angeles resembles the Pueblo Court job, but cement enclosures were eschewed in favor of timber (concrete remains to be found in the website walls in the foreground). Even though the plan and amounts of the house point to Schindler’s own style, the horizontal battens remember Wright’s architecture.

Lovell Beach House, Newport Beach. Another beachfront job, in addition in cement, is back in the L.A. metro region, at Newport Beach. The beach house for healthy living urge Phillip Lovell is analyzed in detail in a Must-Know Modern Home ideabook, but the focus is on Schindler’s shift from architect-engineer to architect-artist. The impressive concrete framework propping the living spaces above the beach level could be seen as strictly in the realm of technology, but their sculptural character points to their form’s being as important as their technology attributes.

As in Schindler’s own house, sleeping porches are all provided in the Lovell Beach House. They were enclosed; examine this photograph to a taken earlier.

The plasticity of the house’s interior (the articulation and therapy of the surfaces and windows) is another sign of Schindler’s shift from technology to art. The house also plays a significant role in this shift, since he finally gave into the pressure to build with timber framing after this bravado concrete construction.

Even though Schindler’s Lovell Beach House wasn’t contained in the powerful 1932 “International Style” series at MoMA (buddy Richard Neutra’s Lovell Health House was, though), a few years after the exhibition Schindler established designs in accord with the curators’ aesthetic definitions of modernism. The light wood framing gave Schindler more liberty with all the volumes, and he treated their surfaces with stucco painted white. However, like his own house, this one is a multiple dwelling: The main house is to the left of the garage (the front door is right outside of the “no parking” sign), along with a rental unit is above the garage.

Bubeshko apartments, Los Angeles. Schindler designed apartment buildings in Los Angeles for A.L. Bubeshko, realized in two phases. The sloping site and also the angle where the street cut across it meant that the apartments were stepped in both plan and section. The former is most conspicuous at the garages, where every stage includes three bays. The stepped section gives each apartment a terrace, atop the ceiling of the one under it. Wright’s enduring impact can be seen in the powerful horizontal rooflines as well as the cosmetic caps of the walls by the garages at appropriate.

The Droste house, Hollywood. In his authoritative monograph on R.M. Schindler, David Beghard defines the time in the late 1920s to the second world war because the architect’s de Stijl period. This relates his work to the art and design style of the identical name, but the author asserts that it was a personal style that involved “the use of intersecting instead of singular volumes to set up their forms,” he states. The Droste House in Hollywood is a late example of the de Stijl, where the junction of volumes and planes is especially pronounced.

Laurelwood Apartments, Studio City. Schindler’s postwar work isn’t as memorable as what he accomplished previously, particularly in the 1920s, but projects such as the Laurelwood Apartments in Los Angeles’ Studio City went well past the so-called “contractor-investment apartments” being built at precisely the exact same moment. He found auto courts in two volumes at the front of the complex (accessed from drives on both sides), also put a walkway between the two which resulted in the long outdoor distance between the splayed and mirrored apartment buildings.

Schindler’s biggest job, it utilized modular structure developed in the war and was designated a historic landmark. It received an outdoor recovery in 2011, and much more appreciate of the complex are seen in the flag below the American flag, proclaiming “Schindler Design Apartments.”

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What Frank Lloyd Wright's Own House Tells Us

In 1888 the young Frank Lloyd Wright borrowed $5,000 from his manager, Louis Sullivan, to buy a lot and construct a house for his family at Oak Park, Illinois. As many architects after did, Wright used his house as a laboratory to explore architectural ideas. He enlarged the house in 1895 with a new playroom and kitchen to accommodate his growing family. The second expansion was the inclusion of this studio in 1898. It was there that Wright and his collaborators made some of the most important buildings of the 20th century. And it was there that the adult Prairie School came into its own.

However, Wright abandoned this house for the last time in 1909 in the zenith of his career. With customer Edwin Cheney’s spouse, Mamah, he fled to Europe, abandoning his wife, Catherine, and their kids. Following Wright’s passing, the house and studio had been cut up into flats to offer an income for Catherine and the kids. By the 1960s the property fell into disrepair, eventually being ceded to the Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust from the mid-1970s.

Having spent many years restoring the property to its 1909 state, the trust currently conducts tours of their property. A visit to this home and studio is essential for anybody interested in Wright, structure or even the Prairie School.

Frank Lloyd Wright Trust

The quality of the exterior of the home is the large and simple gable that floats over the floor. In many ways, Wright’s design for his house resembles a child’s drawing of a house: a very simple geometry with a couple windows and a door.

While Wright would almost assuredly have said the layout had no antecedents, it’s clear that he heard from the shingle-style architects. The similarities between Wright’s house and the Isaac Bell House at Newport, Rhode Island, is spectacular. Open floor plans, large expanses of glass, easy shapes and also a stress on the horizontal are all features of house designs now. In a sense, these were America’s first contemporary homes.

Watch this house decorated for the holidays

Frank Lloyd Wright Trust

The original first floor consisted of a living area, a dining area and a kitchen. In the center of this plan is a inglenook with a fireplace and built-in seating. This central mass of fireplace and chimney would become a trademark of Wright’s designs. Here, in the very center of the house, we find the warmth of a fire to bring the family together.

Frank Lloyd Wright Trust

Wright and Catherine raised many kids in their Oak Park house. The second-floor playroom, added in 1895, is the where the kids learned to play musical instruments and were invited to put on plays for family and friends.

Frank Lloyd Wright Trust

And it’s the playroom that speaks to Wright’s love of family. Sure he had a completely dysfunctional family. However, the homes he designed, starting with his very own, are nothing if not celebrations of family.

Frank Lloyd Wright Trust

The original kitchen was converted to a formal dining area at the mid-1890s. In this area, Wright played with establishing a space within a space. The large, rectangular and decorative lighting fixture defines the area’s centre while the high-back seats form a enclosure of sorts.

Wright’s utilization of built-in furniture is apparent too. By the overall space area to all the particulars, for example, furniture and colors, Wright desired to restrain the surroundings. Leaving nothing to chance, he chose to construct in sideboards, storage, seating etc., rather than having furniture added objects to a space (unless, of course, he made the furniture).

Frank Lloyd Wright Trust

Wright built the last addition to this house from the late 1890s. It had been used as his office and studio for the last ten years he lived in Oak Park.

In the center of this photo is the entrance to what Wright called the studio. To the left of this entrance is the two-story studio, as well as the right of this is the presentation room. The gable roof of the house can be seen behind. While this addition is clearly different from the original house — that was, after all, in which a customer would enter and be greeted, so the terminology of “house” had to give way to the terminology of “company” — it shares the same detailing and materials, binding the two together.

A number of the 20th century’s most important buildings were drawn in this studio. From the Robie House to the Larkin Administration Building and so much more, the buildings dreamed of here changed architecture forever.

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How to Use an Architect

Whether you are arranging a simple addition to your residence, a thorough remodel or a brand-new structure from scratch, or the help of an architect may be a worthwhile investment in a home tailored to your particular site, taste and lifestyle.

Resolution: 4 Architecture

What’s an architect? Architects design buildings and frequently oversee their structure. Architects must make a bachelor or master of architecture degree and complete a three-year internship which culminates in a rigorous multiday exam. The internships are managed throughout the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB); all U.S. states and territories participate. Plans drawn up by architects need to keep their license number, and they may be held liable for their endeavors’ structural integrity.

When to hire a single: Architects use their customers to come up with unique house designs that meet the requirements of a building site, as well as their customers’ needs and way of life. If your plans involve building from scratch or changing your house’s footprint, building codes may require an architect or engineer sign off on plans before construction begins, so check whether this is true in your city or state.

What it will cost: Architects’ fees vary widely based on the project type, location and many other facets. Though fees might be hourly (anywhere from $50 to $200 or more), they are more often based on a percentage of total construction costs (generally around 10 percent, depending on project and region). Some architects may draw up a set of permitting plans for a flat rate.

Gelotte Hommas Architecture

Seek architects from respectable sources. lists tens of thousands of architects and architects in its professional directory. The American Institute of Architects (AIA), an architects’ trade association, offers a directory along with a referral service. A builder you have chosen or have worked with in the past also might have the ability to recommend architects who’d be a good fit for your project.

As with hiring any professional, schedule a first meeting to get a sense for whether the pro matches your personality, needs and personality. Look at his or her online portfolio or ask to see photographs of previous jobs. Ask references and be sure to follow them up. The design and building process is filled with unexpected events, which means you’ll want to hire somebody who has a strong history and with whom you get together and communicate well.

Remember that different architects specialize in various styles and kinds of projects, so make certain you choose one who has experience with structures like the one that you’re planning.

Mitch Wise Design,Inc..

Do your assignments. At the initial consultation, the architect is going to have a very long list of questions regarding the ways you’ll want to utilize your space along with the aesthetic and other goals you would like it to satisfy. Be prepared to answer these completely and thoughtfully. It can help supply photographs of houses or architectural features that appeal to you.

Make sure your thoughts and the architect’s game. After obtaining your input concerning the project, the architect will draft a pair of sketches to begin bringing your vision to life. Take your time reviewing these materials and share anything that does not jibe with your wish list for your space. It is much, much simpler to make changes at this point than it is when the plans are company and construction has begun.

Following the sketch stage, the architect will draw up final, concrete strategies. These generally include a list of specified materials and other nuts-and-bolts products.

Don’t be shy about asking for assistance. Architects’ programs could be hard for the untrained eye to decipher. Make certain you realize the facts and ask your architect to describe any aspects which you find confusing. See how to read a floor plan

Also, the procedure for gathering building permits can throw homeowners for a loop; your architect needs to be able to assist you and alleviate some stress in your end. And also an architect can ensure that the builders’ work stays true to the strategies for the space.

Hunt input fixtures, finishes and surfaces. If you aren’t working with an interior designer, ask your architect for advice about paint colours and surface stuff, as well as other features such as lighting. He or she likely will have the ability to offer good suggestions which will assist the space to flow both functionally and visually.

Invite site visits during construction. It will add to the bottom line, however having your architect on hand to be certain the programs are performed correctly can save time, money and headaches in the long run.

Inform us : Architects and homeowners, please discuss your tips below!

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Architect's Toolbox: A Room Inside a Room

Architects and designers occasionally create a room within a room to reduce the scale and supply a more intimate environment — nesting a space within a space, a little like Shaker nesting boxes along with Russian matryoshka dolls.

The best example of is St. Peter’s baldachin at the Vatican. This Bernini’s sculptural room sits inside the great space of the cathedral, breaking the vastness of the space while providing the stage for religious pursuits. Open on all sides and coated, the baldachin’s four roof and columns define a most intimate and sacred of spaces.

So next time you get under the covers of your own four-poster bed or take part in a dialogue in an inglenook from the fire, do not forget that you’re enjoying the kind of space architects are creating for centuries.

Dara Rosenfeld Design

The most common type of room within a room is your four-poster bed. This works in a room with tall ceiling. And the bed frame’s architectural treatment here suggests this is a building within a building, not just a room within a room.

Gne architecture

A four-poster bed can be a very simple and modern design and still create an intimate space in a huge room.


A modern interpretation of this idea has the bed in a room defined by absolute fabric hanging from a ceiling that is raised.

Philpotts Interiors

Not limited to Western design, the posts and”ceilings” of traditional Chinese beds create that room-within-a-room quality.

Janell Beals – House of Fifty

A massive living area can be enriched with a smaller room inside. Though the piano sits in the larger volume distance, columns along with a change in ceiling height create a more intimate conversation area.

Using a screen of columns at the side of a room generates a romantic place to see while maintaining connection to the larger room.

Dwell Design Studio

Utilizing up the step and seating structure for spatial separation — along with also the fireplace as a focal point — that inglenook is a room inside the larger context of chambers around it.

Garret Cord Werner Architects & Interior Designers

Not just an approach for living rooms and bedrooms, the idea of a room within a room may be utilised in bathrooms to create a special spot to shower or bathe.

JSL Exteriors Landscape Design/Build

A room within a room isn’t just for the interior. Some very simple lattice screening and greenery makes for a wonderfully intimate and restful way station in the excellent outdoors.

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How to Produce a Nest at Home
Creating Nests in Unexpected Places

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